Transcultural adaptation and validation of a French version of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility 12-item Short-Form (PLUS-M/FC-12) in active amputees

Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2019 May;62(3):142-148. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2019 Apr 6.


Background: The PLUS-M 12-item Short-Form is a self-questionnaire that assesses the perceived capacity of lower limb amputees (LLAs) to perform a number of daily-life activities. Its psychometric properties are excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]>0.9, fast administration and scoring, normative data available), and it can be used in clinical practice or for research purposes.

Objective: We aimed to develop a French version of this questionnaire and to assess its psychometric properties.

Methods: We followed international recommendations for translation and cross-cultural validation of questionnaires. In total, 52 LLAs (age 53±16, 40 males, 28/12/12 transtibial/Gritti-Stokes/transfemoral, 20/28/4 ischemic/traumatic/other) participated. Criterion and construct validities were assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between the PLUS-M 12-item Short-Form and other constructs (Prosthetic-Profile-of-the-Amputee-Locomotor Capabilities Index, Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale, 2-min walking test and Timed Up and Go test), internal consistency with the Cronbach α and reliability with the ICC in 46 individuals who completed the questionnaire twice in a 7-day interval.

Results: The mean (SD) PLUS-M 12-item Short-Form T-score was 56.1 (7.8; range 40.3 to 71.4). Construct and criterion validity, internal consistency and reliability ranged from low to excellent (r=0.43 to 0.84, P<10-2 to 0.002; Cronbach α=0.90, ICC=0.89 [0.81-0.94]). We found no floor or ceiling effect.

Conclusions: The French version of the PLUS-M 12-item Short-Form has good to excellent psychometric properties, comparable to those of the original version. Its use could definitely be proposed for both clinical and research purposes, once its validation is completed by assessing other psychometric qualities, especially sensitivity to change.

Keywords: Assessment; Lower limb amputation; Mobility; Rehabilitation; Self-questionnaire; Validation.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amputation, Surgical / rehabilitation*
  • Artificial Limbs*
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Female
  • France
  • Humans
  • Lower Extremity / physiopathology
  • Lower Extremity / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mobility Limitation*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Psychometrics
  • Quality of Life
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Translations