Postsynaptic trafficking plays a key role in regulating synapse structure and function. While spiny excitatory synapses can be stable throughout adult life, their morphology and function is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about how AD risk genes impact synaptic function. Here we used structured superresolution illumination microscopy (SIM) to study the late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk factor BIN1, and show that this protein is abundant in postsynaptic compartments, including spines. While postsynaptic Bin1 shows colocalization with clathrin, a major endocytic protein, it also colocalizes with the small GTPases Rab11 and Arf6, components of the exocytic pathway. Bin1 participates in protein complexes with Arf6 and GluA1, and manipulations of Bin1 lead to changes in spine morphology, AMPA receptor surface expression and trafficking, and AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Our data provide new insights into the mesoscale architecture of postsynaptic trafficking compartments and their regulation by a major LOAD risk factor.