Dickeya is a genus of phytopathogenic enterobacterales causing soft rot in a variety of plants (e.g. potato, chicory, maize). Among the species affiliated to this genus, Dickeya aquatica, described in 2014, remained particularly mysterious because it had no known host. Furthermore, while D. aquatica was proposed to represent a deep-branching species among Dickeya genus, its precise phylogenetic position remained elusive. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the D. aquatica type strain 174/2. We demonstrate the affinity of D. aquatica strain 174/2 for acidic fruits such as tomato and cucumber and show that exposure of this bacterium to acidic pH induces twitching motility. An in-depth phylogenomic analysis of all available Dickeya proteomes pinpoints D. aquatica as the second deepest branching lineage within this genus and reclassifies two lineages that likely correspond to new genomospecies (gs.): Dickeya gs. poaceaephila (Dickeya sp NCPPB 569) and Dickeya gs. undicola (Dickeya sp 2B12), together with a new putative genus, tentatively named Prodigiosinella. Finally, from comparative analyses of Dickeya proteomes, we infer the complex evolutionary history of this genus, paving the way to study the adaptive patterns and processes of Dickeya to different environmental niches and hosts. In particular, we hypothesize that the lack of xylanases and xylose degradation pathways in D. aquatica could reflect adaptation to aquatic charophyte hosts which, in contrast to land plants, do not contain xyloglucans.
© 2019 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.