Orofacial Dysfunction In Cleft And Non-Cleft Patients Using Nordic Orofacial Test - A Screening Study

Braz Dent J. 2019 Mar-Apr;30(2):179-184. doi: 10.1590/0103-6440201902376. Epub 2019 Apr 4.


Cleft lip, alveolus and palate is a congenital malformation caused by the lack of fusion of the lip and palate embryonic processes, which may disrupt the main functions of the stomatognathic system. Aim: This study aimed to assess the orofacial dysfunction in individuals with cleft lip, alveolus, and palate compared to non-cleft patients. One hundred and twenty individuals between 32 and 65 years of age were selected in the Craniofacial Center and in the School of Dentistry and divided into two groups: non-cleft patients (N-CLAP) and cleft lip, alveolus, and palate patients (CLAP). The two groups were matched by gender. Each individual was interviewed and submitted to a clinical evaluation during which the NOT-S was used to assess orofacial dysfunction. To verify the intra-examiner agreement, the values were compared using the Kappa test. The Mann-Whitney test compared performance on the NOT-S between the groups. The Chi-Square test compared the NOT-S domains between the groups. A comparison of the NOT-S scores between the groups revealed statistically significant differences in gender (p<0.001), but no statistically significant differences in the intragroup gender comparison were found. The assessment of the NOT-S domains between the N-CLAP and CLAP groups exhibited statistically significant differences in domains: breathing (p=0.021), chewing and swallowing (p<0.001), and dryness of the mouth (p=0.002) of the interview and significant differences in all domains of the clinical examination (p<0.001). Individuals with CLAP showed more orofacial dysfunction than non-cleft patients, without gender differences, after being assessed through the NOT-S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cleft Lip*
  • Cleft Palate*
  • Face
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Sex Factors