Electronic nicotine product use is increasing in the U.S., but few studies have addressed its effects on oral health. The goal of this work was to determine the association between electronic nicotine product use and periodontal disease. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health adult survey data from 2013⁻2016 (waves 1, 2 and 3) was used for the analysis. Longitudinal electronic nicotine product users used electronic nicotine products regularly every day or somedays in all three waves. Participants with new cases of gum disease reported no history of gum disease in wave 1 but reported being diagnosed with gum disease in waves 2 or 3. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to determine the association between electronic nicotine product use and new cases of gum disease after controlling for potential cofounders. Compared to never users, longitudinal electronic nicotine product users had increased odds of being diagnosed with gum disease (OR 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.12⁻2.76) and bone loss around teeth (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06⁻2.63). These odds were higher for participants with a history of marijuana and a history of illicit or non-prescribed drug use. Our findings show that e-cigarettes may be harmful to oral health.
Keywords: e-cigarette; electronic nicotine product; oral disease; oral health; periodontal disease.