Rh(III) Aqueous Speciation with Chloride as a Driver for Its Extraction by Phosphonium Based Ionic Liquids

Molecules. 2019 Apr 9;24(7):1391. doi: 10.3390/molecules24071391.


In this work, the aqueous speciation of Rh(III) in chloride medium was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy for ligand to metal ratios R = (Cl-)/(Rh) ranging from 300 to 5000, at fixed Rh concentration (2.4 × 10-3 M). Under the chemical conditions of this work, no time evolution was observed, which allows for the fitting of the UV-vis data by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multi-Curve Resolution (MCR). From this, and by comparison with literature data, the three independent species [RhCl₄]-, [RhCl₅]2- and [RhCl₆]3- were identified, their individual absorption spectra derived and their respective contribution to the collected experimental UV-vis spectra calculated. Then, extraction of Rh(III) towards the ionic liquid trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride was performed. Comparison with the speciation data gives insight into the extraction mechanism and the extracted species.

Keywords: Rh(III); extraction; ionic liquid; speciation.

MeSH terms

  • Ionic Liquids / chemistry*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / chemistry*
  • Rhodium / chemistry*


  • Ionic Liquids
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride
  • Rhodium