Epidemiology and Outcome of HIV-infected Patients Admitted to the ICU in the Current Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era

Med Intensiva. Jun-Jul 2020;44(5):283-293. doi: 10.1016/j.medin.2019.02.012. Epub 2019 Apr 7.
[Article in English, Spanish]

Abstract

Purpose: To describe the epidemiology of critical disease in HIV-infected patients during the current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and to identify hospital mortality predictors.

Methods: A longitudinal, retrospective observational study was made of HIV-infected adults admitted to the ICU in two Spanish hospitals between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2014. Demographic and HIV-related variables were analyzed, together with comorbidities, severity scores, reasons for admission and need for organ support. The chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables, while continuous variables were contrasted with the Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test or Kruskal-Wallis test, assuming an alpha level=0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios for assessing correlations to mortality during hospital stay. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to study mortality trends over time.

Results: A total of 283 episodes were included for analyses. Hospital mortality was 32.9% (95%CI: 21.2-38.5). Only admission from a site other than the Emergency Care Department (OR 3.64, 95%CI: 1.30-10.20; p=0.01), moderate-severe liver disease (OR 5.65, 95%CI: 1.11-28.87; p=0.04) and the APACHE II score (OR 1.14, 95%CI: 1.04-1.26; p<0.01) and SOFA score at 72h (OR 1.19, 95%CI: 1.02-1.40; p=0.03) maintained a statistically significant relationship with hospital mortality.

Conclusions: Delayed ICU admission, comorbidities and the severity of critical illness determine the prognosis of HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU. Based on these data, HIV-infected patients should receive the same level of care as non-HIV-infected patients, regardless of their immunological or nutritional condition.

Keywords: HAART; HIV; Prognosis; Pronóstico; TARGA; VIH.