Introduction: Many reports show that denture adhesives improve the retention and stability of dentures. However, few randomized controlled trials have examined the effects of denture adhesives.
Objective: This 10-center randomized controlled trial with parallel groups involving 200 edentulous patients wearing complete dentures aimed to evaluate the effects of short-term use of cream and powder denture adhesives.
Methods: Patients were allocated into 2 cream- and powder-type adhesive groups and 1 control group. Intervention groups were treated with the 2 adhesives (1 each), and the control group received saline solution. Adhesive or control was applied to the denture-mucosal surface for 4 d, and data at baseline and after day 4 of intervention (i.e., 8 meals) were obtained. Patient satisfaction was evaluated with a 100-mm visual analog scale. Oral health-related quality of life was measured with the Japanese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for Edentulous Patients. Perceived chewing ability was evaluated by a questionnaire regarding ease of chewing and swallowing food. Between-group comparisons were performed with Kruskal-Wallis tests with the Mann-Whitney U test adjusted by Bonferroni correction. Within-group comparisons of pre- and postintervention measurements were performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Intention-to-treat analysis was also performed.
Results: Between-group comparisons showed no significant differences for general satisfaction or Oral Health Impact Profile for Edentulous Patients. However, significant differences in satisfaction with various denture functions with cream- and powder-type adhesives were seen in pre- and postintervention comparisons (P < 0.05). Significant differences were also observed for perceived chewing ability of hard foods (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: These results suggest that although denture adhesives do not invariably improve denture function, they do affect subjective evaluations and possibly chewing of hard foods. Therefore, the effects of denture adhesive use are insufficient to resolve any fundamental dissatisfaction with dentures ( ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01712802 ).
Knowledge transfer statement: The results of this study suggest that denture adhesives should be applied under certain conditions; however, an appropriate diagnosis is important before application. These practice-based data provide information to establish evidence-based guidelines for applying denture adhesives.
Keywords: clinical trial; complete dentures; oral health–related quality of life; patient outcome assessment; patient satisfaction; prospective studies.