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. 2019 Apr 12;364(6436):eaau8650.
doi: 10.1126/science.aau8650.

The NASA Twins Study: A Multidimensional Analysis of a Year-Long Human Spaceflight

Francine E Garrett-Bakelman #  1   2 Manjula Darshi #  3 Stefan J Green #  4 Ruben C Gur #  5 Ling Lin #  6 Brandon R Macias #  7 Miles J McKenna #  8 Cem Meydan #  1   9 Tejaswini Mishra #  6 Jad Nasrini #  5 Brian D Piening #  6 Lindsay F Rizzardi #  10 Kumar Sharma #  3 Jamila H Siamwala #  11 Lynn Taylor #  8 Martha Hotz Vitaterna #  12 Maryam Afkarian  13 Ebrahim Afshinnekoo  1   9 Sara Ahadi  6 Aditya Ambati  6 Maneesh Arya  7 Daniela Bezdan  1   9 Colin M Callahan  10 Songjie Chen  6 Augustine M K Choi  1 George E Chlipala  4 Kévin Contrepois  6 Marisa Covington  14 Brian E Crucian  14 Immaculata De Vivo  15 David F Dinges  5 Douglas J Ebert  7 Jason I Feinberg  10 Jorge A Gandara  1 Kerry A George  7 John Goutsias  10 George S Grills  1 Alan R Hargens  11 Martina Heer  16 Ryan P Hillary  6 Andrew N Hoofnagle  17 Vivian Y H Hook  11 Garrett Jenkinson  10 Peng Jiang  12 Ali Keshavarzian  18 Steven S Laurie  7 Brittany Lee-McMullen  6 Sarah B Lumpkins  19 Matthew MacKay  1 Mark G Maienschein-Cline  4 Ari M Melnick  1 Tyler M Moore  5 Kiichi Nakahira  1 Hemal H Patel  11 Robert Pietrzyk  7 Varsha Rao  6 Rintaro Saito  11 Denis N Salins  6 Jan M Schilling  11 Dorothy D Sears  11 Caroline K Sheridan  1 Michael B Stenger  14 Rakel Tryggvadottir  10 Alexander E Urban  6 Tomas Vaisar  17 Benjamin Van Espen  11 Jing Zhang  6 Michael G Ziegler  11 Sara R Zwart  20 John B Charles  21 Craig E Kundrot  22 Graham B I Scott  23 Susan M Bailey  24 Mathias Basner  25 Andrew P Feinberg  26 Stuart M C Lee  27 Christopher E Mason  28   9   29   30 Emmanuel Mignot  31 Brinda K Rana  32 Scott M Smith  21 Michael P Snyder  31 Fred W Turek  33
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The NASA Twins Study: A Multidimensional Analysis of a Year-Long Human Spaceflight

Francine E Garrett-Bakelman et al. Science. .

Abstract

To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intima-media thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.

Comment in

  • Hazards of human spaceflight.
    Löbrich M, Jeggo PA. Löbrich M, et al. Science. 2019 Apr 12;364(6436):127-128. doi: 10.1126/science.aaw7086. Science. 2019. PMID: 30975876 No abstract available.
  • Understanding the effects of spaceflight.
    Stower H. Stower H. Nat Med. 2019 May;25(5):710. doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0455-x. Nat Med. 2019. PMID: 31068707 No abstract available.

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