GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence based on 46 studies

Cancer Cell Int. 2019 Mar 29:19:76. doi: 10.1186/s12935-019-0792-3. eCollection 2019.


Background: It is well known that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been one of the most life-threatening diseases all over the world. Plenty of internal and extrinsic factors have been proven to be related to HCC, such as gene mutation, viral hepatitis, and Nitrosamines. Though previous studies demonstrated that glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes are associated with HCC, the conclusions are inconsistent. Therefore, we carried on a renewed meta-analysis to expound the connection between the null GSTM1, GSTT1 polymorphisms and the risk of HCC.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and CNKI databases to select qualified researches which satisfied the inclusion criteria up to July 31, 2018. Finally, we selected 41 articles with 6124 cases and 9781 controls in this meta-analysis. We use ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the correlation intension between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genes and the risk of HCC. All the statistical processes were executed by Stata (version 12.0).

Results: The pooled analysis showed that both GSTM1 null genotypes (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.59) and GSTT1 null genotypes (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.23-1.66) increased the risk of HCC. And GSTM1-GSTT1 dual-null genotypes also increased the risk of HCC (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.22-2.05). In the subgroup analysis, we obtained significant results among Asians when stratified by race, and the results are GSTM1 null OR = 1.44, 95% CI = (1.22-1.71), GSTT1 null OR = 1.48, 95% CI = (1.25-1.77), GSTM1-GSTT1 null OR = 1.58, 95% CI = (1.19-2.09), while we didn't obtain significant results among Caucasians or Africans. Stratified analyses on the type of control indicated a higher risk of HCC associated with GSTM1, GSTT1 single null genotypes and GSTM1-GSTT1 dual-null genotypes in healthy people. No evidence of significant connection was discovered in chronic liver disease (CLD) except in GSTT1 single null.

Conclusions: Our study indicated that an individual who carries the GSTM1, GSTT1 single null genotypes and GSTT1-GSTM1 dual-null genotypes is more likely to develop HCC.

Keywords: GSTM1; GSTT1; Glutathione S-transferase; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Meta-analysis.