Rationale: Daily high-dose aspirin therapy benefits many patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease but provides no benefit for aspirin-tolerant patients with asthma. Type 2 inflammation characterizes aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.Objectives: To determine whether high-dose aspirin therapy changes biomarkers of type 2 inflammation in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.Methods: Forty-two subjects with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease underwent an aspirin desensitization and were placed on high-dose aspirin (1,300 mg daily). Fifteen aspirin-tolerant subjects with asthma were also placed on high-dose aspirin. Biologic specimens and clinical parameters were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks on aspirin. Urinary eicosanoids, plasma tryptase and cytokine levels, platelet-leukocyte aggregates, and granulocyte transcripts were assessed.Measurements and Main Results: Eight weeks of high-dose aspirin decreased nasal symptoms and urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (P < 0.05) and increased urinary leukotriene E4 (P < 0.01) levels in subjects with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, but not in those with aspirin-tolerant asthma. Urinary prostaglandin D2 and thromboxane metabolites decreased in both groups. Only in subjects with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, exhaled nitric oxide (P < 0.05), plasma tryptase (P < 0.01), and blood eosinophil (P < 0.01) and basophil (P < 0.01) counts increased and plasma tryptase correlated with eosinophil counts (Pearson r = 0.514; P < 0.01) on aspirin. After correction for eosinophil counts, aspirin-induced changes in blood granulocyte transcripts did not differ between groups. Aspirin had no effect on platelet-leukocyte aggregates, platelet activation markers, or plasma cytokines in either group.Conclusions: High-dose aspirin therapy for 8 weeks paradoxically increases markers of type 2 inflammation in subjects with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, despite reducing nasal symptoms. This effect of aspirin is unique to aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease and not observed in subjects with aspirin-tolerant asthma.
Keywords: aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease; aspirin-tolerant asthma; cysteinyl leukotrienes; mast cell; type 2 inflammation.