The etiology, pathogeneses, and treatment of objective tinnitus: Unique case series and literature review

Am J Otolaryngol. 2019 Jul-Aug;40(4):594-597. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2019.03.017. Epub 2019 Apr 5.


We present two unique cases of myoclonus-induced objective tinnitus (OT), along with a comprehensive literature review on the topic. Primary goals include: explore the relationship between palatal myoclonus (PM) and middle ear myoclonus (MEM), highlight the embryologic, neurologic, and anatomical relationship between the involved peri-tubular muscles, exemplify the first case of OT which documents video evidence demonstrating the link between objective tinnitus and eustachian tube movement. Also, we discuss available treatment interventions and why they often do not fully resolve patients' symptoms. Finally we introduce a novel way to objectively quantify the severity of OT. Ultimately, our series hopes to inform future diagnostic and treatment guidelines.

Keywords: Audiology; Eustachian tube; Middle ear; Middle ear myoclonus; Objective tinnitus; Otology; Palatal myoclonus.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ear, Middle
  • Eustachian Tube / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myoclonus / complications
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tinnitus / diagnosis
  • Tinnitus / etiology*
  • Tinnitus / physiopathology
  • Tinnitus / therapy*