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Case Reports
. 2019 Aug;64(8):2231-2241.
doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05617-3. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Clinical Manifestation, Natural Course, and Evaluation of Treatment With Corticosteroids and Vedolizumab

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Case Reports

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Clinical Manifestation, Natural Course, and Evaluation of Treatment With Corticosteroids and Vedolizumab

Tanja Grandinetti et al. Dig Dis Sci. .

Abstract

Background: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare, chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its natural history and treatment outcomes. The aims of our analysis were to describe clinical presentation, response to current medical treatments, and to evaluate the response of refractory EGE to anti-integrin therapy.

Methods: Patients with confirmed diagnosis of EGE fulfilling the diagnostic criteria: (1) the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, (2) dense eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and (3) exclusion of other conditions leading to gastrointestinal eosinophilia were included in this analysis. In patients non-responding to corticosteroids and/or anti-TNF treatment the integrin blocker vedolizumab was used.

Results: EGE patients (n = 22) were predominantly female (63%) with a median age at diagnosis of 41.5 years. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain (100%), diarrhea (59%), nausea/vomiting (36%), and bloating (27%). No pathognomonic endoscopic alterations were found. Eosinophilic infiltration was observed in the majority of patients in more than one segment. Patients were treated with systemic steroids, topical, and enteral release steroids in 21/22 (95%) patients, proton pump inhibitors in 7/22 (32%), TNFα inhibitors in 3/22 (14%), and vedolizumab in 4/22 (18%) patients. In 3/4 of steroid-refractory patients vedolizumab induced a clinical and histological improvement.

Conclusions: The combination of highly variable clinical presentation, subtle endoscopic abnormalities, and involvement of several GI segments undermines the difficulty to diagnose EGE and the need for structured biopsy sampling. Corticosteroids were efficient in the majority of patients to induce remission. Response to the integrin blocker vedolizumab suggests further assessment in refractory cases.

Keywords: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis; Steroid-refractory; Vedolizumab.

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