Background: Studies of vitamin D (VD) physiology suggest that effects of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) could be much broader than rickets including cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes, infection, and allergy and pregnancy complications. Data regarding the prevalence of hypovitaminosis in pregnancy are scanty especially in north eastern part of India. Therefore, this study has undertaken with the intention to find out prevalence and outcome of hypovitaminosis of VD in pregnancy.
Materials and method: In total, 177 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy, <16 weeks of gestational age, visited to antenatal clinic of our institute were consecutively enrolled for the study. The serum VD was estimated by Beckman coulter unicel DXI immunoassay system using the principle of Chemiluminescence. Incidence of vitamin deficiency and insufficiency calculated. VDD was defined as 25(OH)D levels in blood <20 ng/mL, and insufficiency of VD was defined as 25(OH)D levels <32 ng/mL. Antenatal complications, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), oligohydramnios, pre-eclampsia, preterm labor, gestational diabetes, if any, were noted. Labor and delivery information including induction of labor, mode of delivery, and newborn birth weight were noted.
Result: In total, 177 women recruited for the study. Mean age and parity of the subjects were 26.71 ± 9.96 and 2.10 ± 1.8, respectively. For detailed statistical analysis, women were divided into three groups depending upon their VD levels: deficiency group [25(OH)D level <20 ng/mL], insufficiency group [25(OH)D level <32 ng/mL], and sufficient group [25(OH)D level >32 ng/mL]. VDD was present in 84.18% subjects. VD insufficiency was present in 12.44% of cases. There is association of preeclampsia, cesarean section, and low birth weight babies with lower level of VD.
Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of VDD in pregnancy is astonishingly high till now there is no guideline to screen antenatal women for VDD. As the test is costly even, offering it to all at-risk women may not be cost effective compared with offering universal supplementation, particularly as treatment is regarded as being very safe.
Keywords: Cesarean section; pre-eclampsia; pregnancy outcome; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D insufficiency.