To obtain probes for sex-specific gene regulation during development in D. melanogaster, sequences expressed sex-specifically in adult flies were isolated by differential cDNA hybridization screens of a genomic library. Ten clones define new sex-specifically expressed genes. The remaining three isolates correspond to previously cloned genes encoding female-specific yolk proteins and chorion proteins. The pattern of expression of these genes in sex determination mutants and in germlineless flies, as well as their tissue specificities, permitted us to distinguish transcripts whose expression is dependent on correct sexual development of the soma or the germline. One of the female transcripts is expressed in nurse cells and oocytes. Five of the male-specific sequences are expressed in the testis during spermatogenesis: the remaining one is expressed in the soma. Experiments using a temperature-sensitive allele of tra-2 show that the presence of this male-specific transcript, found only in the adult paragonia, is not affected by temperature shift of X/X; tra-2ts2 adults. This is in contrast to yolk protein genes, which require tra-2 function in the adult for their expression in the female fat body.