Biology, pathophysiology and current therapies that affect lipoprotein (a) levels

J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2019 Jun;131:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2019.04.005. Epub 2019 Apr 12.


Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] has recently emerged as a causal, independent and genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve disease. Given the high incidence of elevated Lp(a) among the general population, significant gaps in the knowledge of Lp(a) biology, pathophysiology and current therapies affecting Lp(a) reduction exist. As plasma Lp(a) levels are genetically determined and insensible to diet, exercise and lifestyle changes, lipid-lowering therapies seem to be the solution to lower elevated Lp(a) levels. This review summarises the current knowledge of Lp(a) structure, metabolism, catabolism, pathophysiology, and Lp(a) response to statins, lipid apheresis, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, cholesterol esterase transferase protein (CETP) inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Lipoprotein(a) / blood*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Lipoprotein(a)