This study proves that the new developed zinc-doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHAp) colloids by an adapted sol-gel method can be widely used in the pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental industries. ZnHAp nanoparticles were stabilized in an aqueous solution, and their colloidal dispersions have been characterized by different techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to get information on the morphology and composition of the investigated samples. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis confirmed the elemental compositions of ZnHAp colloidal dispersions. The homogeneous and uniform distribution of constituent elements (zinc, calcium, phosphorus, oxygen) was highlighted by the obtained elemental mapping results. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the obtained samples showed a single phase corresponding to the hexagonal hydroxyapatite. The characteristic bands of the hydroxyapatite structure were also evidenced by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. For a stability assessment of the colloidal system, ζ-potential for the ZnHAp dispersions was estimated. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to determine particles dispersion and hydrodynamic diameter (DHYD). The goal of this study was to provide for the first time information on the stability of ZnHAp particles in solutions evaluated by non-destructive ultrasound-based technique. In this work, the influence of the ZnHAp colloidal solutions stability on the development of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), was also established for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of ZnHAp solutions was strongly influenced by both the stability of the solutions and the amount of Zn.
Keywords: antibacterial activity; nanoparticles; ultrasound technique; zinc-doped hydroxyapatite.