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Association Between Dietary Salt Intake and Progression in the Gastric Precancerous Process

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Association Between Dietary Salt Intake and Progression in the Gastric Precancerous Process

Susan Thapa et al. Cancers (Basel).

Abstract

Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Studies investigating the effect of salt on gastric cancer have mainly used self-reported measures, which are not as accurate as sodium/creatinine ratios because individuals may not know the amount of salt in their food. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we investigated the effect of salt intake on progression to gastric precancerous lesions. Salt intake was estimated by urinary sodium/creatinine ratios, self-reported frequencies of adding salt to food, and total added table salt. We repeated the analyses among groups with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. We did not observe a positive association between salt intake, measured by urinary sodium/creatinine ratio, and overall progression in the gastric precancerous process (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.15). We did observe an association between salt intake and increased risk for progression to dysplasia or gastric cancer overall (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96-1.81), especially among those who continued to have H. pylori infection at the five-month follow-up (adjusted RR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.12-2.09), and among those who had persistent H. pylori infection over 12 years (adjusted RR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.05). Salt intake may increase the risk of gastric dysplasia or gastric cancer in individuals with H. pylori infection.

Keywords: atrophic gastritis; dysplasia; gastric cancer; intestinal metaplasia; salt intake.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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