Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Breeding Waters of Anopheles darlingi in Manaus in the Amazon Basin Malaria-Endemic Area

Microb Ecol. 2019 Nov;78(4):781-791. doi: 10.1007/s00248-019-01369-9. Epub 2019 Apr 15.


The microbiota in mosquito breeding waters can affect ovipositing mosquitoes, have effects on larval development, and can modify adult mosquito-gut bacterial composition. This, in turn, can affect transmission of human pathogens such as malaria parasites. Here, we explore the microbiota of four breeding sites for Anopheles darlingi, the most important malaria vector in Latin America. The sites are located in Manaus in the Amazon basin in Brazil, an area of active malaria transmission. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing by MiSeq, we found that all sites were dominated by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and that 94% of the total number of reads belonged to 36 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified in all sites. Of these, the most common OTUs belonged to Escherichia/Shigella, Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas. Of the remaining 6% of the reads, the OTUs found to differentiate between the four sites belonged to the orders Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales, and Clostridiales. We conclude that An. darlingi can develop in breeding waters with different surface-water bacteria, but that the common microbiota found in all breeding sites might indicate or contribute to a suitable habitat for this important malaria vector.

Keywords: 16S rRNA; Amazonas; Anopheles darlingi; Malaria; Microbiota; Mosquito.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Distribution*
  • Animals
  • Anopheles / physiology*
  • Bacteria / classification
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Brazil
  • Ecosystem
  • Fresh Water / microbiology*
  • Malaria
  • Microbiota*
  • Mosquito Vectors / physiology
  • RNA, Bacterial / analysis
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / analysis
  • Reproduction


  • RNA, Bacterial
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S