Aims: Patients with type 2 diabetes have been considered a susceptible group for pulmonary dysfunction. Our aim was to assess pulmonary function on the prediabetes stage.
Methods: Pulmonary function was assessed in 4,459 non-diabetic subjects, aged between 45 and 70 years, without cardiovascular disease or chronic pulmonary obstructive disease from the ongoing study ILERVAS. A "restrictive spirometric pattern", an "abnormal FEV1" and an "obstructive ventilatory defect" were assessed. Prediabetes was defined by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between 5.7 and 6.4% according to the American Diabetes Association criteria.
Results: Population was composed of 52.1% women, aged 57 [53;63] years, a BMI of 28.6 [25.8;31.8] kg/m2, and with a prevalence of prediabetes of 29.9% (n = 1392). Subjects with prediabetes had lower forced vital capacity (FVC: 93 [82;105] vs. 96 [84;106], p < 0.001) and lower forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1: 94 [82;107] vs. 96 [84;108], p = 0.011), as well as a higher percentage of the restrictive spirometric pattern (16.5% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.015) and FEV1 < 80% (20.3% vs. 17.2%, p = 0.017) compared to non-prediabetes group. In the prediabetes group, HbA1c was negatively correlated with both pulmonary parameters (FVC: r = - 0.113, p < 0.001; FEV1: r = - 0.079, p = 0.003). The multivariable logistic regression model in the whole population showed that there was a significant and independent association between HbA1c with both restrictive spirometric pattern [OR = 1.42 (1.10-1.83), p = 0.008] and FEV1 < 80% [OR = 1.50 (1.19-1.90), p = 0.001].
Conclusions: The deleterious effect of type 2 diabetes on pulmonary function appears to be initiated in prediabetes, and it is related to metabolic control. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT03228459.
Keywords: Forced expiratory volume in the first second; Forced vital capacity; Prediabetes; Pulmonary dysfunction; Restrictive spirometric pattern.