Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to climb on the podium of the leading causes of mortality worldwide in the upcoming decade. Clinical diagnosis of COPD has classically relied upon detecting irreversible airflow obstruction on pulmonary function testing as a global assessment of pulmonary physiology. However, the outcome is still not favorable to decrease mortality due to COPD. Progress made in both medical and molecular imaging fields are beginning to offer additional tools to address this clinical problem. This review aims to describe medical and molecular imaging modalities used to diagnose COPD and to select patients for appropriate treatments and to monitor response to therapy.