The expression rhythms of clock genes, such as Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Rev-erb α, in mouse peripheral clocks, are entrained by a scheduled feeding paradigm. In terms of food composition, a carbohydrate-containing diet is reported to cause strong entrainment through insulin secretion. However, it is unknown whether human diets entrain peripheral circadian clocks. In this study, we used freeze-dried diets for type 2 diabetes (DB) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as low-carbohydrate diets. After 24 h of fasting, PER2::LUC knock-in mice were given access to food for 2 days during inactive periods, and bioluminescence rhythm was then measured using an in vivo imaging system. AIN-93M, the control mouse diet with a protein:fat:carbohydrate (PFC) ratio of 14.7:9.5:75.8, caused a significant phase advance (7.3 h) in the liver clock compared with that in 24 h fasted mice, whereas human diets caused significant but smaller phase advances (4.7-6.2 h). Compared with healthy and high fat/sucrose-induced DB mice, adenine-induced CKD mice showed attenuation of a phase-advance with a normal diet. There were no significant differences in phase-advance values between human diets (normal, DB, and CKD). In addition, a normal-carbohydrate diet (PFC ratio of 20.3:23.3:56.4) and a low-carbohydrate diet (PFC ratio of 36.4:42.9:20.7) caused similar phase advances in peripheral clocks. The present results strongly suggest that scheduled feeding with human diets can cause phase advances in the peripheral clocks of not only healthy, but also DB and CKD mice. This discovery provides support to the food-induced entrainment of peripheral clocks in human clinical trials.
Keywords: CKD; Peripheral clock; diabetes; food entrainment; human diets; mouse.