Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin secreted from enteroendocrine K cells and potentiates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. GIP also enhances long-chain triglyceride (LCT) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Long-term intake of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet is known to induce less body weight and fat mass gain than that of LCT diet. However, the effect of MCT diet feeding on GIP secretion and the effect of GIP on body weight and fat mass under MCT diet-feeding condition are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of single MCT oil administration on GIP secretion and compared the effect of long-term MCT and LCT diet on body weight and fat mass gain in wild-type (WT) and GIP-knockout (GIP KO) mice. Single administration of LCT oil induced GIP secretion but that of MCT oil did not in WT mice. Long-term intake of LCT diet induced GIP hypersecretion and significant body weight and fat mass gain compared with that of control fat (CF) diet in WT mice. In contrast, MCT diet did not induce GIP hypersecretion, and MCT diet-fed mice showed smaller increase in body weight and fat mass gain compared with CF diet-fed mice. In GIP KO mice, body weight and fat mass were markedly attenuated in LCT diet-fed mice but not in MCT diet-fed mice. Our results suggest that long-term intake of MCT diet stimulates less GIP secretion and suppresses body weight and fat mass gain compared with that of LCT diet.
Keywords: gastric inhibitory polypeptide; incretin; long-chain triglyceride; medium-chain triglyceride; obesity.