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. 2019 May;15(5):499-509.
doi: 10.1038/s41589-019-0268-8. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Dynamic Assembly of Protein Disulfide Isomerase in Catalysis of Oxidative Folding

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Dynamic Assembly of Protein Disulfide Isomerase in Catalysis of Oxidative Folding

Masaki Okumura et al. Nat Chem Biol. .

Abstract

Time-resolved direct observations of proteins in action provide essential mechanistic insights into biological processes. Here, we present mechanisms of action of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-the most versatile disulfide-introducing enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum-during the catalysis of oxidative protein folding. Single-molecule analysis by high-speed atomic force microscopy revealed that oxidized PDI is in rapid equilibrium between open and closed conformations, whereas reduced PDI is maintained in the closed state. In the presence of unfolded substrates, oxidized PDI, but not reduced PDI, assembles to form a face-to-face dimer, creating a central hydrophobic cavity with multiple redox-active sites, where substrates are likely accommodated to undergo accelerated oxidative folding. Such PDI dimers are diverse in shape and have different lifetimes depending on substrates. To effectively guide proper oxidative protein folding, PDI regulates conformational dynamics and oligomeric states in accordance with its own redox state and the configurations or folding states of substrates.

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