Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human pathogens that can cause gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including simple gastritis, gastric ulcer, and malignant gastritis. In some cases, such as immunodeficiency and underlying diseases, it can be problematic as opportunistic infections. Diabetes mellitus (type 2) (T2DM) is one of the H. pylori underlying diseases. Since GI problems are observed in diabetic patients, it is necessary to treat H. pylori infection. In this review, we aimed to evaluate the possible relationship between H. pylori and T2DM according to epidemiological surveys of 70 studies retrieved from databases, including Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar about the relationship between H. pylori and T2DM, and discuss the reported background mechanisms of this correlation. According to the results of our study, the different studies have shown that H. pylori is more prevalent in Type 2 diabetic patients than healthy individuals or nondiabetic patients. The reason is development of H. pylori infection-induced inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines as well as different hormonal imbalance by this bacterium, which are associated with diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, by tracing anti-H. pylori antibodies in patients with diabetes mellitus and occurrence of symptoms such as digestive problems in >75% of these patients, it can be concluded that there is a relationship between this bacterium and T2DM. Considering the evidence, it is crucially important that the probability of infection with H. pylori is evaluated in patients with T2DM so that medical process of the patient is followed with higher cautious.
Keywords: Diabetes; Helicobacter pylori; Type 2 diabetes; diabetes mellitus.