Introduction: After dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D), recovery of sufficient kidney function to discontinue dialysis is an important clinical and patient-oriented outcome. Predicting the probability of recovery in individual patients is a common dilemma.
Methods: This cohort study examined all adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California who experienced AKI-D between January 2009 and September 2015 and had predicted inpatient mortality of <20%. Candidate predictors included demographic characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory values, and medication use. We used logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) approaches to develop and cross-validate prediction models for recovery.
Results: Among 2214 patients with AKI-D, mean age was 67.1 years, 40.8% were women, and 54.0% were white; 40.9% of patients recovered. Patients who recovered were younger, had higher baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and preadmission hemoglobin levels, and were less likely to have prior heart failure or chronic liver disease. Stepwise logistic regression applied to bootstrapped samples identified baseline eGFR, preadmission hemoglobin level, chronic liver disease, and age as the predictors most commonly associated with coming off dialysis within 90 days. Our final logistic regression model including these predictors had a correlation coefficient between observed and predicted probabilities of 0.97, with a c-index of 0.64. An alternate CART approach did not outperform the logistic regression model (c-index 0.61).
Conclusion: We developed and cross-validated a parsimonious prediction model for recovery after AKI-D with excellent calibration using routinely available clinical data. However, the model's modest discrimination limits its clinical utility. Further research is needed to develop better prediction tools.
Keywords: dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury; prediction model; renal recovery.