Forty years after its naming, interleukin-1 (IL-1) is experiencing a renaissance brought on by the growing understanding of its context-dependent roles and advances in the clinic. Recent studies have identified important roles for members of the IL-1 family-IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38-in inflammation and immunity. Here, we review the complex functions of IL-1 family members in the orchestration of innate and adaptive immune responses and their diversity and plasticity. We discuss the varied roles of IL-1 family members in immune homeostasis and their contribution to pathologies, including autoimmunity and auto-inflammation, dysmetabolism, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer. The trans-disease therapeutic activity of anti-IL-1 strategies argues for immunity and inflammation as a metanarrative of modern medicine.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.