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PRRs and NB-LRRs: From Signal Perception to Activation of Plant Innate Immunity


PRRs and NB-LRRs: From Signal Perception to Activation of Plant Innate Immunity

Ali Noman et al. Int J Mol Sci.


To ward off pathogens and pests, plants use a sophisticated immune system. They use pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), as well as nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) domains, for detecting nonindigenous molecular signatures from pathogens. Plant PRRs induce local and systemic immunity. Plasma-membrane-localized PRRs are the main components of multiprotein complexes having additional transmembrane and cytosolic kinases. Topical research involving proteins and their interactive partners, along with transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, has extended our understanding of R-gene-mediated plant immunity. The unique LRR domain conformation helps in the best utilization of a surface area and essentially mediates protein-protein interactions. Genome-wide analyses of inter- and intraspecies PRRs and NB-LRRs offer innovative information about their working and evolution. We reviewed plant immune responses with relevance to PRRs and NB-LRRs. This article focuses on the significant functional diversity, pathogen-recognition mechanisms, and subcellular compartmentalization of plant PRRs and NB-LRRs. We highlight the potential biotechnological application of PRRs and NB-LRRs to enhance broad-spectrum disease resistance in crops.

Keywords: PAMPs; defense; pathogenesis; plants; transcriptional activity.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Presence of nucleotide-binding-site (NBS)-encoding R genes in different plants. Toll interleukin 1 receptor nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR) and coiled-coil-NB-LRR (CC-NB-LRR).

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