The Reference Genome Sequence of Scutellaria baicalensis Provides Insights into the Evolution of Wogonin Biosynthesis

Mol Plant. 2019 Jul 1;12(7):935-950. doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2019.04.002. Epub 2019 Apr 15.


Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is important in Chinese traditional medicine where preparations of dried roots, "Huang Qin," are used for liver and lung complaints and as complementary cancer treatments. We report a high-quality reference genome sequence for S. baicalensis where 93% of the 408.14-Mb genome has been assembled into nine pseudochromosomes with a super-N50 of 33.2 Mb. Comparison of this sequence with those of closely related species in the order Lamiales, Sesamum indicum and Salvia splendens, revealed that a specialized metabolic pathway for the synthesis of 4'-deoxyflavone bioactives evolved in the genus Scutellaria. We found that the gene encoding a specific cinnamate coenzyme A ligase likely obtained its new function following recent mutations, and that four genes encoding enzymes in the 4'-deoxyflavone pathway are present as tandem repeats in the genome of S. baicalensis. Further analyses revealed that gene duplications, segmental duplication, gene amplification, and point mutations coupled to gene neo- and subfunctionalizations were involved in the evolution of 4'-deoxyflavone synthesis in the genus Scutellaria. Our study not only provides significant insight into the evolution of specific flavone biosynthetic pathways in the mint family, Lamiaceae, but also will facilitate the development of tools for enhancing bioactive productivity by metabolic engineering in microbes or by molecular breeding in plants. The reference genome of S. baicalensis is also useful for improving the genome assemblies for other members of the mint family and offers an important foundation for decoding the synthetic pathways of bioactive compounds in medicinal plants.

Keywords: 4′-deoxyflavone; Huang Qin; evolution; genome; skullcap; specialized metabolism; traditional Chinese medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biosynthetic Pathways / genetics*
  • Flavanones* / genetics
  • Flavanones* / metabolism
  • Flavonoids / genetics*
  • Flavonoids / metabolism
  • Genome, Plant
  • Medicine, Chinese Traditional
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Roots / metabolism
  • Plants, Medicinal / genetics
  • Plants, Medicinal / metabolism
  • Scutellaria baicalensis / genetics*
  • Scutellaria baicalensis / metabolism
  • Whole Genome Sequencing


  • Flavanones
  • Flavonoids
  • Plant Extracts
  • Scutellaria baicalensis extract
  • wogonin