Nutrient intake patterns and breast cancer risk among Jordanian women: a case-control study

Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019010. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2019010. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Abstract

Objectives: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of cancer worldwide. Globally, BC is rapidly becoming a major common health problem among women. This study aimed to evaluate the association between nutrient intake patterns and BC risk among Jordanian women.

Methods: A total of 400 Jordanian women 20-65 years of age were recruited in this case-control study. Two hundred women recently diagnosed with BC were matched in age, income, and marital status to 200 BC-free women. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutrient intake patterns.

Results: In this study, 3 nutrient intake patterns were identified: a high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient intake pattern; a high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient intake pattern; and a high-fat nutrient intake pattern. A significant increase in BC risk was associated with the high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient pattern (the highest for the fourth quartile; odds ratio [OR], 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 13.91; ptrend=0.001). In the high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient pattern, a significant inverse trend was detected for the risk of BC. The high-fat nutrient pattern showed a significant direct association with BC risk in the third (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.58 to 9.51) and fourth (OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.53 to 9.77) quartiles (ptrend=0.001).

Conclusions: A significant increase in BC risk was detected for the high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient intake pattern and the high-fat nutrient intake pattern. However, for the high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient intake pattern, a significant inverse trend was observed.

Keywords: Breast cancer; Case control studies; Diet; Jordan; Nutrient pattern.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diet Surveys
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Jordan / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrients / administration & dosage*
  • Nutrients / adverse effects*
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Nutrients