Objectives: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of cancer worldwide. Globally, BC is rapidly becoming a major common health problem among women. This study aimed to evaluate the association between nutrient intake patterns and BC risk among Jordanian women.
Methods: A total of 400 Jordanian women 20-65 years of age were recruited in this case-control study. Two hundred women recently diagnosed with BC were matched in age, income, and marital status to 200 BC-free women. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutrient intake patterns.
Results: In this study, 3 nutrient intake patterns were identified: a high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient intake pattern; a high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient intake pattern; and a high-fat nutrient intake pattern. A significant increase in BC risk was associated with the high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient pattern (the highest for the fourth quartile; odds ratio [OR], 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 13.91; ptrend=0.001). In the high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient pattern, a significant inverse trend was detected for the risk of BC. The high-fat nutrient pattern showed a significant direct association with BC risk in the third (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.58 to 9.51) and fourth (OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.53 to 9.77) quartiles (ptrend=0.001).
Conclusions: A significant increase in BC risk was detected for the high vitamin C and β-carotene nutrient intake pattern and the high-fat nutrient intake pattern. However, for the high calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D nutrient intake pattern, a significant inverse trend was observed.
Keywords: Breast cancer; Case control studies; Diet; Jordan; Nutrient pattern.