Impact of an indigestible oil phase (mineral oil) on the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 encapsulated in whey protein-stabilized nanoemulsions

Food Res Int. 2019 Jun:120:264-274. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.02.031. Epub 2019 Feb 19.


These is some interest in replacing digestible fats with indigestible ones to decrease the energy-density of foods. The utilization of indigestible oils, however, may have unforeseen nutritional consequences, such as the reduction of vitamin bioavailability. In this study, the impact of an indigestible oil on the bioaccessibility of emulsified vitamin D3 (VD) was examined. We prepared four kinds of nanoemulsions using different combinations of a digestible oil (DO) and an indigestible oil (IO): DO only; IO only; an oil mixture (OM) consisting of 1:1 DO:IO mixed before homogenization; and, an emulsion mixture (EM) consisting of 1:1 DO:IO nanoemulsions mixed after homogenization. A gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model was employed to elucidate the kinetics of VD bioaccessibility from the nanoemulsions. Both the lipid digestion rate and vitamin bioaccessibility decreased in the same order: DO > OM ≈ EM > IO. The change in vitamin bioaccessibility over time under simulated small intestine conditions was also measured. With the exception of the IO nanoemulsions, the vitamin bioaccessibility increased to a maximum value after around 30 min, but then decreased during the following 24 h. This effect was attributed to an initial solubilization of the vitamin within the mixed micelles, followed by their precipitation during prolonged incubation. Our results show that lipid digestion, micelle solubilization, and micelle aggregation impact the in vitro bioaccessibility of vitamin D. This knowledge may be helpful for designing more efficacious nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for fat-soluble vitamins.

Keywords: Bioaccessibility; Indigestible oil; Nanoemulsion; Simulated GIT tract; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Biological Availability
  • Cholecalciferol / chemistry*
  • Cholecalciferol / pharmacokinetics
  • Digestion
  • Drug Carriers
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Emulsions
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Micelles
  • Mineral Oil / chemistry*
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Particle Size
  • Whey Proteins / chemistry*


  • Drug Carriers
  • Emulsions
  • Micelles
  • Whey Proteins
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Mineral Oil