Background: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may be at an increased risk of liver complications because chronic hyperglycemia is a risk factor for liver fat accumulation and potential liver dysfunction. Large prospective studies examining liver fat accumulation following a GDM pregnancy are lacking.
Methods: The Diabetes & Women's Health Study (2012-2014) examined the association between GDM and subsequent fatty liver scores among 607 women with and 619 women without GDM in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Nine to 16 years postpartum, a clinical examination was performed, with measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and γ-glutamyl transferase, from which fatty liver scoring indices were calculated to assess liver fat score, fatty liver index, hepatic steatosis index, and liver fat percentage. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for elevated liver scoring indices by GDM status were assessed adjusting for major risk factors, including prepregnancy body mass index.
Results: Women with prior GDM had higher adjusted ALT and AST levels than women without GDM (by 6.7% [95% CI 1.7-12.0] and 4.8% [95% CI 0.6-9.1], respectively). Women with GDM also had adjusted increased risks for elevated liver fat score (RR 2.34; 95% CI 1.68-3.27), fatty liver index (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.27-1.99), and hepatic steatosis index (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.21-1.71).
Conclusions: Women with GDM during pregnancy were at an increased risk for fatty liver 9 to 16 years postpartum. Gestational diabetes mellitus may serve as another risk indicator for the early identification and prevention of liver fat accumulation.
背景: 妊娠期糖尿病(gestational diabetes mellitus，GDM)女性发生肝脏并发症的风险可能增加，因为慢性高血糖是肝脏脂肪蓄积及潜在肝功能异常的危险因素。目前评估GDM患者产后肝脏脂肪蓄积的大型前瞻性研究不足。 方法: 糖尿病与女性健康研究(The Diabetes & Women's Health Study, 2012-2014)使用丹麦国家出生队列，在607例合并GDM的女性和619例无GDM的女性中调查了GDM与后续脂肪肝评分之间的相关性。在产后9-16年进行临床检查，测定丙氨酸氨基转移酶(alanine aminotransferase，ALT)、天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(aspartate aminotransferase，AST)和γ-谷氨酰转移酶，由此计算脂肪肝评分指标，评估肝脏脂肪评分、脂肪肝指数、肝脏脂肪变性指数以及肝脏脂肪百分比。校正主要风险因素(包括妊娠前体重指数)后，根据GDM状态评估导致肝脏评分指标升高的相对风险(relative risk，RR)及其95%可信区间(confidence interval，CI)。 结果: 既往患GDM的女性校正的ALT及AST水平均高于无GDM的女性(分别高出6.7%[95% CI: 1.7-12.0]与4.8%[95% CI: 0.6-9.1])。GDM女性的校正后肝脏脂肪评分(RR 2.34；95% CI: 1.68-3.27)、脂肪肝指数(RR 1.59；95% CI: 1.27-1.99)及肝脏脂肪变性指数(RR 1.44；95% CI: 1.21-1.71)升高的风险也增加。 结论: 妊娠期合并GDM的女性在产后9-16年发生脂肪肝的风险增加。GDM可作为早期发现和预防肝脏脂肪蓄积的另一个风险指标。.
Keywords: fatty liver; gestational diabetes; hyperglycemia; liver fat scoring indices; pregnancy; 妊娠; 妊娠糖尿病; 肝脏脂肪评分指标; 脂肪肝; 高血糖.
© 2019 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.