Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of 9-hour time-restricted feeding (TRF), early (TRFe) or delayed (TRFd), on glucose tolerance in men at risk for type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Fifteen men (age 55 ± 3 years, BMI 33.9 ± 0.8 kg/m2 ) wore a continuous glucose monitor for 7 days of baseline assessment and during two 7-day TRF conditions. Participants were randomized to TRFe (8 am to 5 pm) or TRFd (12 pm to 9 pm), separated by a 2-week washout phase. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and gastrointestinal hormone incremental areas under the curve were calculated following a standard meal on days 0 and 7 at 8 am (TRFe) or 12 pm (TRFd).
Results: TRF improved glucose tolerance as assessed by a reduction in glucose incremental area under the curve (P = 0.001) and fasting triglycerides (P = 0.003) on day 7 versus day 0. However, there were no mealtime by TRF interactions in any of the variables examined. There was also no effect of TRF on fasting and postprandial insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, or gastrointestinal hormones. Mean fasting glucose by continuous glucose monitor was lower in TRFe (P = 0.02) but not TRFd (P = 0.17) versus baseline, but there was no difference between TRF conditions.
Conclusions: While only TRFe lowered mean fasting glucose, TRF improved glycemic responses to a test meal in men at risk for type 2 diabetes regardless of the clock time that TRF was initiated.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02633722.
© 2019 The Obesity Society.