Short and long-term effects of bisphenol S (BPS) exposure during pregnancy and lactation on plasma lipids, hormones, and behavior in rats

Environ Pollut. 2019 Jul;250:312-322. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.100. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Abstract

Bisphenol S (BPS) has replaced bisphenol A (BPA), a known non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemical, in several products. Considering that little is known regarding BPS effects, especially during critical windows of ontogenetic development, and that BPA, which is quite similar to BPS, is know to be transferred to the offspring via the placenta and milk, in the present study we investigated the behavioral, biochemical and endocrine profiles of Wistar rats born from dams that were BPS-exposed [groups: BPS10 (10 μg/kg/day), BPS50 (50 μg/kg/day)] during pregnancy and lactation. Due to the non-monotonic dose-response effect of bisphenol, the data of both BPS groups were directly compared with those of the controls, not to each other. Males and females were analyzed separately. At weaning, male BPS50 offspring had hypotriglyceridemia and hyperthyroxinemia, whereas BPS50 females showed higher 25(OH)D levels. At adulthood, BPS offspring of both sexes had lower food intake. BPS males showed lower visceral adiposity. BPS50 females had smaller fat droplets in brown adipocytes. BPS males showed higher anxiety and higher locomotor activity, while BPS10 females showed lower exploration. During a food challenge test at adulthood, BPS males consumed more high-fat diet at 30 min. BPS10 females initially (at 30 min) consumed more high-fat diet but, after 12 h, less of this diet was consumed. BPS50 males had hypertriglyceridemia and lower plasma T3, while BPS females showed lower plasma T4. BPS10 females had lower progesterone, whereas BPS50 females had higher plasma 25(OH)D. Maternal BPS exposure has adverse effects on the triacylglycerol, hormones levels and behavior of the progeny. Furthermore, the increased preference for the fat-enriched diet suggests an increased risk for obesity and its health consequences in the long term.

Keywords: Breastfeeding; Developmental plasticity; Gestation; Hormones.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Breast Feeding
  • Diet, High-Fat
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity*
  • Endocrine System
  • Female
  • Lactation
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Maternal Exposure
  • Milk
  • Obesity
  • Phenols / toxicity*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Sulfones / toxicity*

Substances

  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Lipids
  • Phenols
  • Sulfones
  • bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfone
  • bisphenol A