The effects of the calcium antagonists ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraace tic acid (EGTA), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) on the concentrations of plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) and on the basal and stimulated release of T4 from incubated thyroid glands have been determined in the domestic fowl. Plasma T4 levels were consistently reduced 2 hr after the administration of each calcium antagonist, although only EGTA and CoCl2 lowered the concentration of plasma total calcium. Concentrations of plasma T3 were increased following MgCl2 treatment but reduced after CoCl2 administration. The basal release of T4 by incubated thyroid glands was reduced following in vivo EGTA and CoCl2 treatment, but increased after MgCl2 injection. The addition of bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, 200 mU) to the incubation consistently stimulated in vitro T4 release, although the magnitude of the stimulation was increased following in vivo EGTA or CoCl2 treatment and reduced after MgCl2 administration. These results demonstrate the involvement of calcium dependent mechanisms in the control of T4 release in fowl.