Update of the statements on biology and clinical impact of occult hepatitis B virus infection

J Hepatol. 2019 Aug;71(2):397-408. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2019.03.034. Epub 2019 Apr 18.


In October 2018 a large number of international experts with complementary expertise came together in Taormina to participate in a workshop on occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI). The objectives of the workshop were to review the existing knowledge on OBI, to identify issues that require further investigation, to highlight both existing controversies and newly emerging perspectives, and ultimately to update the statements previously agreed in 2008. This paper represents the output from the workshop.

Keywords: HBV S variants; HBV cccDNA; HBV reactivation; HBV transmission; Hepatocellular carcinoma; OBI; Occult HBV infection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology
  • DNA, Viral / blood
  • Hepatitis B / complications
  • Hepatitis B / diagnosis*
  • Hepatitis B / epidemiology*
  • Hepatitis B / virology
  • Hepatitis B Antibodies / blood
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / immunology
  • Hepatitis B virus / genetics*
  • Hepatitis B virus / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver / virology
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology
  • Risk Factors


  • DNA, Viral
  • Hepatitis B Antibodies
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens