Bacterial Infections in the Stem Cell Transplant Recipient and Hematologic Malignancy Patient

Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019 Jun;33(2):399-445. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2019.02.011.


Bacteremia (bloodstream infection) is frequent (20%-30% incidence) in the stem cell transplant and hematologic malignancy population and often occurs in the early post-transplant engraftment period. In most studies, Gram-positive bacteria occur at greater frequency than gram-negative bacteria, although some centers report that rates of gram-negative bloodstream infections have recently increased. In many centers, resistance rates among Enterococci and gram-negative bacteria, especially the Enterobacteriaceae, are extensive and associated with increased mortality. Better prediction tools, enhanced infection control, and new anti-infective agents hold promise for the treatment of highly resistant pathogens in this population.

Keywords: Bacteremia; Gram negative; Gram positive; KPC-Kp; Resistance; Stem cell transplantation; Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacteremia / microbiology*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / etiology*
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / etiology*
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / complications
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / microbiology*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Incidence


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents