Biomechanical Stress Profiling of Coronary Atherosclerosis: Identifying a Multifactorial Metric to Evaluate Plaque Rupture Risk

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2020 Mar;13(3):804-816. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.01.033. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to derive a biomechanical stress metric that was based on the multifactorial assessment of coronary plaque morphology, likely related to the propensity of plaque rupture in patients.

Background: Plaque rupture, the most frequent cause of coronary thrombosis, occurs at locations of elevated tensile stress in necrotic core fibroatheromas (NCFAs). Finite element modeling (FEM), typically used to calculate tensile stress, is computationally intensive and impractical as a clinical tool for locating rupture-prone plaques. This study derived a multifactorial stress equation (MSE) that accurately computes peak stress in NCFAs by combining the influence of several morphological parameters.

Methods: Intravascular ultrasound and optical frequency domain imaging were conducted in 30 patients, and plaque morphological parameters were defined in 61 NCFAs. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to derive the MSE and compute a peak stress metric (PSM) that was based on the analysis of plaque morphological parameters. The accuracy of the MSE was determined by comparing PSM with FEM-derived peak stress values. The ability of the PSM in locating plaque rupture sites was tested in 3 additional patients.

Results: The following parameters were found to be independently associated with peak stress: fibrous cap thickness (p < 0.0001), necrotic core angle (p = 0.024), necrotic core thickness (p < 0.0001), lumen area (p < 0.0001), necrotic core including calcium areas (p = 0.017), and plaque area (p = 0.003). The PSM showed excellent correlation (R = 0.85; p < 0.0001) with FEM-derived peak stress, thus confirming the accuracy of the MSE. In only 56% (n = 34) of plaques, the thinnest fibrous cap thickness was a determining parameter in identifying the cross section with highest PSM. In coronary segments with plaque ruptures, the MSE precisely located the rupture site.

Conclusions: The MSE shows potential to calculate the PSM in coronary lesions rapidly. However, further studies are warranted to investigate the use of biomechanical stress profiling for the prognostic evaluation of patients with atherosclerosis.

Keywords: atherosclerosis; biomechanics; computational modeling; finite element; plaque rupture; stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / diagnostic imaging*
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / therapy
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Coronary Artery Disease / diagnostic imaging*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / physiopathology
  • Coronary Artery Disease / therapy
  • Fibrosis
  • Humans
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Necrosis
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Plaque, Atherosclerotic*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Rupture, Spontaneous
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence*
  • Ultrasonography, Interventional*