A CCR4-NOT Transcription Complex, Subunit 1, CNOT1, Variant Associated with Holoprosencephaly

Am J Hum Genet. 2019 May 2;104(5):990-993. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.017. Epub 2019 Apr 18.


Holoprosencephaly is the incomplete separation of the forebrain during embryogenesis. Both genetic and environmental etiologies have been determined for holoprosencephaly; however, a genetic etiology is not found in most cases. In this report, we present two unrelated individuals with semilobar holoprosencephaly who have the identical de novo missense variant in the gene CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 1 (CNOT1). The variant (c.1603C>T [p.Arg535Cys]) is predicted to be deleterious and is not present in public databases. CNOT1 has not been previously associated with holoprosencephaly or other brain malformations. In situ hybridization analyses of mouse embryos show that Cnot1 is expressed in the prosencephalic neural folds at gestational day 8.25 during the critical period for subsequent forebrain division. Combining human and mouse data, we show that CNOT1 is associated with incomplete forebrain division.

Keywords: CNOT1; holoprosencephaly; neonatal diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Child
  • Female
  • Holoprosencephaly / genetics*
  • Holoprosencephaly / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mutation, Missense*
  • Phenotype
  • Prosencephalon / abnormalities*
  • Prosencephalon / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • CNOT1 protein, human
  • Transcription Factors