Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive type of brain tumour. Patients with GBM respond poorly to chemotherapy and have poor survival outcomes. Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2), also known as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), has been shown to contribute to critical processes, such as cell survival, proliferation, and chemotherapy resistance, during glioma progression. In this study, we found that furanodienone (FUR), a diene-type sesquiterpene isolated from the rhizomes of Rhizoma curcumae, exhibited a potential cytotoxic effect on temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant GBM cells in vitro by inhibiting CSPG4 and related signalling pathways. Studies investigating the mechanism demonstrated that FUR suppressed CSPG4-Akt-ERK signalling, inflammatory responses, and cytokine levels but activated caspase-dependent pathways and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, an immunofluorescence assay and a dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that inhibition of EGR1-mediated transcription might have contributed to the FUR-dependent blockade of CSPG4 signalling and glioma cell survival. These results established a link between FUR-induced CSPG4 inhibition and the suppression of EGR1-dependent transcription. Attenuation of ERK1/2 and cytokine signalling might have generated the EGR1-dependent negative feedback loop of the CSPG4 pathway during FUR-induced apoptosis. These findings suggested that FUR could be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of malignant glioma via targeting CSPG4 signalling.
Keywords: CSPG4; EGR1; furanodienone; glioblastoma; negative feedback loop.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.