Objective: To examine costs related to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), understand the source of these costs, discuss a possible approach for cost-effective care in EoE, and identify areas for future research in this topic.
Data sources/study selections: Narrative review of the literature from 1977 (first description of EoE) to March 2019, focusing on costs and cost-effectiveness analyses in EoE.
Results: High costs in EoE can be related to diagnostic delays, requirement for upper endoscopy with biopsy for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity, expensive medications currently used off-label, increased food costs related to dietary elimination treatment, frequent doctor visits with subspecialists, and complications or disease exacerbations. Provision of cost-effective care in EoE is an understudied area, and a patient-centric approach is key. There are multiple areas in which future research can make an impact. These include determining predictors of treatment response, minimally or noninvasive methods to monitor disease activity, and validation of the use of multidisciplinary care.
Conclusion: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is considered to be a rare disease, but the costs of care and burden of disease attributed to EoE are substantial. However, few studies examine either the costs related to EoE or the approach to cost-effective care for the EoE patient. To provide cost-effective care, a patient-centric approach and shared decision-making model are optimal. In addition, a rational strategy for EoE diagnosis and initial treatment, effective maintenance therapy for disease control and ideally to prevent complications, and appropriate long-term monitoring are all required.
Copyright © 2019 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.