3D Bioprinting in Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering

Small. 2019 Jun;15(24):e1805530. doi: 10.1002/smll.201805530. Epub 2019 Apr 23.


Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims at repairing defective skeletal muscles. Until now, numerous developments are made in SMTE; however, it is still challenging to recapitulate the complexity of muscles with current methods of fabrication. Here, after a brief description of the anatomy of skeletal muscle and a short state-of-the-art on developments made in SMTE with "conventional methods," the use of 3D bioprinting as a new tool for SMTE is in focus. The current bioprinting methods are discussed, and an overview of the bioink formulations and properties used in 3D bioprinting is provided. Finally, different advances made in SMTE by 3D bioprinting are highlighted, and future needs and a short perspective are provided.

Keywords: 3D printing; bioinks; bioprinting; hydrogels; skeletal muscle; tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bioprinting / instrumentation
  • Bioprinting / methods*
  • Cell Culture Techniques / instrumentation
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Humans
  • Muscle, Skeletal / cytology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  • Regenerative Medicine / instrumentation
  • Regenerative Medicine / methods
  • Tissue Engineering* / instrumentation
  • Tissue Engineering* / methods
  • Tissue Scaffolds* / chemistry