[Allergy to food in adults with allergic respiratory diseases: prevalence and clinical manifestations]

Rev Alerg Mex. Jan-Mar 2019;66(1):1-8. doi: 10.29262/ram.v66i1.400.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Background: Food allergy is considered a typical problem in the pediatric population, however, cases occur in adults more frequently.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of food allergy in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma; as well as the foods and symptoms most related to said problem.

Methods: Through a cross-sectional study, the information of 257 adults with asthma or allergic rhinitis was analyzed. The information related to food allergy was obtained through a standardized interview; the confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for 95% proportions.

Results: The prevalence of food allergy was 17.5% (95% CI = 13.3% to 22.6%). The main foods that caused symptoms were soy, shrimp, almonds, avocado and peanuts. The majority of patients who were allergic to a single food were 35.6%, two foods were 17.8% and three foods were 17.8%. The most frequent affections of food allergy were oral (62.2%): itching of the pharynx, tongue and palate; respiratory (26.7%), dyspnea and sneezing; and skin (26.7%), itching and hives.

Conclusions: Food allergy in adults with asthma or allergic rhinitis is a common problem. Oral symptoms are the main ailments in this type of patients and are mainly caused by soy.

Antecedentes: La alergia a alimentos se considera un problema típico de la población pediátrica, sin embargo, los adultos se ven afectados cada vez con mayor frecuencia. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de alergia a los alimentos en pacientes con rinitis alérgica y asma, así como los alimentos y los síntomas más relacionados con este problema. Métodos: Mediante un estudio transversal se analizaron los datos de 257 adultos con asma o rinitis alérgica. La información relacionada con la alergia a los alimentos se obtuvo por entrevista estandarizada. Se calcularon intervalos de confianza (IC) a 95 % para proporciones. Resultados: La prevalencia de alergia a alimentos fue de 17.5 % (IC 95 % = 13.3-22.6). Soya, camarón, almendra, aguacate y cacahuate fueron los alimentos que principalmente provocaron molestias; 35.6 % de los pacientes fue alérgico a un alimento, 17.8 % a dos y 17.8 % a tres. Las manifestaciones más frecuentes fueron las orales (62.2 %), prurito en faringe, lengua y paladar; las respiratorias (26.7 %), disnea y estornudos; y las cutáneas (26.7 %), comezón y ronchas. Conclusiones: La alergia a alimentos en adultos con asma o rinitis alérgica es un problema frecuente. Los síntomas orales son la principal molestia en este tipo de pacientes y principalmente son provocados por la soya.

Keywords: Adult; Allergic rinitis; Asthma; Food allergy.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asthma / complications
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Food Hypersensitivity / complications
  • Food Hypersensitivity / diagnosis*
  • Food Hypersensitivity / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / complications