Diagnosis of allergic sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma in a tropical environment

Rev Alerg Mex. Jan-Mar 2019;66(1):44-54. doi: 10.29262/ram.v66i1.570.

Abstract

Background: Few studies in tropical developing countries have utilized molecular diagnosis to characterize allergen-specific responses to aeroallergens.

Objective: To investigate the in vivo and in vitro responses of IgE antibodies to inhalant allergens in allergic patients with rhinitis and/or asthma.

Methods: A prospective study in which patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma were included. Skin prick tests with 16 inhalant extracts of allergens were carried out and total and specific IgE levels for allergens and their molecular components in the serum were determined.

Results: In a total of 189 patients, 73.5% showed high levels of total IgE in the serum. The prick tests were positive for the following allergens: Dust mite extracts; more than 60 %, cat; 29.6 %, dog; 23.4 %, and Periplaneta Americana; 21.6 %. Specific IgE for Dermatophagoides farinae and Pteronyssinus was present in 66.6 % of the patients; for Blomia tropicalis; in 45.0 %, for Ascaris lumbricoides; in 24.7 %, for cat; in 17.3 %, for parrot feathers; in 14.8 %, and for Penicillium notatum; in 12.3 %. IgE antibodies to mite allergens of group 1 and 2 were present in 59.0 % and 70.1 % of the sera; 39.1 % contained IgE to rBlo t5, 30.4 %contained rBla g4, 19.9 % contained rFel d1, 11.8 % contained rArt v3, 11.2 % contained Der p10, 9.9 % contained rBla g2, 9.3 % contained rPer a7, 9.3 % contained nFel d2, and 8.7 % contained rCan f1.

Conclusions: This study confirms that mites are the main sensitizing agents in patients with respiratory allergic diseases in a tropical environment. There was a good correlation between the results of the skin tests and the results of the in vitro tests.

Antecedentes: Pocos estudios en países tropicales y en desarrollo han utilizado el diagnóstico molecular para caracterizar las respuestas específicas a los aeroalérgenos. Objetivo: Investigar las respuestas de anticuerpos IgE in vivo e in vitro a alérgenos inhalantes en pacientes alérgicos con rinitis o asma. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo que incluyó pacientes con rinitis alérgica o asma. Se realizaron pruebas cutáneas por punción con 16 extractos de alérgenos inhalantes y se determinaron los niveles de IgE total y específica para alérgenos y sus componentes moleculares en el suero. Resultados: De 189 pacientes, en 73.5 % se observó niveles elevados de IgE total en el suero. Las pruebas de punción fueron positivas a los siguiente alérgenos: extractos de ácaros más de 60 %, gato 29.6 %, perro 23.4 % y Periplaneta americana 21.6 %. La IgE específica para Dermatophagoides farinae y pteronyssinus estuvo presente en 66.6 %, para Blomia tropicalis, Ascaris lumbricoides, gato, plumas de perico, Penicillium notatum en 45.0, 24.7, 17.3, 14.8 y 12.3 %, respectivamente. Anticuerpos de clase IgE a alérgenos de ácaros de los grupos 1 y 2 estuvieron presentes en 59.0 y 70.1 % de los sueros; 39.1, 30.4, 19.9, 11.8, 11.2, 9.9, 9.3, 9.3 y 8.7 % contenían IgE a rBlot5, rBla g4, rFel d1, rArt v3, Derp 10, rBla g2, rPer a7, nFel d2 y rCan f1, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se confirma a los ácaros como los principales agentes sensibilizantes en pacientes con enfermedades alérgicas respiratorias en el trópico. Existió buena correlación entre los resultados de las pruebas cutáneas y las pruebas in vitro.

Keywords: Allergic rinitis; Asthma; Mites; Molecular diagnosis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Allergens / immunology*
  • Asthma / diagnosis*
  • Asthma / immunology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / diagnosis*
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / immunology*
  • Skin Tests
  • Tropical Medicine
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Allergens