Time to Onset of Paresthesia Among Community Members Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Apr 22;16(8):1429. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16081429.


We examined whether time to onset of paresthesia was associated with indicators of severity of World Trade Center (WTC) exposure. We analyzed data from 3411 patients from the Bellevue Hospital-WTC Environmental Health Center. Paresthesia was defined as present if the symptom occurred in the lower extremities with frequency "often" or "almost continuous." We plotted hazard functions and used the log-rank test to compare time to onset of paresthesia between different exposure groups. We also used Cox regression analysis to examine risk factors for time-to-paresthesia after 9/11/2001 and calculate hazard ratios adjusted for potential confounders. We found significantly elevated hazard ratios for paresthesia for (a) working in a job that required cleaning of WTC dust in the workplace; and (b) being heavily exposed to WTC dust on September 11, 2001, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and body mass index. These observational data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to WTC dust or some other aspect of cleaning WTC dust in the workplace, is associated with neuropathy and paresthesia. Further neurological evaluations of this and other WTC-exposed populations is warranted.

Keywords: Cox regression; World Trade Center exposure; hazard function; neuropathic symptoms; paresthesia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Disasters
  • Dust*
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Paresthesia / epidemiology*
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Factors
  • September 11 Terrorist Attacks*


  • Dust