Background: EGFR is a major therapeutic target for colorectal cancer. Currently, extended RAS/RAF testing identifies only nonresponders to EGFR inhibitors (EGFRi). We aimed to develop a mutation signature that further refines drug-sensitive subpopulations to improve EGFRi outcomes.
Methods: A prespecified, 203-gene expression signature score measuring cetuximab sensitivity (CTX-S) was validated with two independent clinical trial datasets of cetuximab-treated patients with colorectal cancer (n = 44 and n = 80) as well as an in vitro dataset of 147 cell lines. The CTX-S score was then used to decipher mutated genes that predict EGFRi sensitivity. The predictive value of the identified mutation signature was further validated by additional independent datasets.
Results: Here, we report the discovery of a 2-gene (APC+TP53) mutation signature that was useful in identifying EGFRi-sensitive colorectal cancer subpopulations. Mutant APC+TP53 tumors were more predominant in left- versus right-sided colorectal cancers (52% vs. 21%, P = 0.0004), in microsatellite stable (MSS) versus microsatellite instable (MSI) cases (47% vs. 2%, P < 0.0001), and in the consensus molecular subtype 2 versus others (75% vs. 37%, P < 0.0001). Moreover, mutant APC+TP53 tumors had favorable outcomes in two cetuximab-treated patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) datasets (P = 0.0277, n = 52; P = 0.0008, n = 98).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the APC and TP53 combination mutation may account for the laterality of EGFRi sensitivity and provide a rationale for refining treated populations. The results also suggest addition of APC+TP53 sequencing to extended RAS/RAF testing that may directly increase the response rates of EGFRi therapy in selected patients.
Impact: These findings, if further validated through clinical trials, could also expand the utility of EGFRi therapies that are currently underutilized.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.