Effect of School Services on Academic Performance After Traumatic Brain Injury in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Students

J Sch Health. 2019 Jul;89(7):519-526. doi: 10.1111/josh.12776. Epub 2019 Apr 23.


Background: School reintegration after traumatic brain injuries (TBI) requires school support; however, implementation of services is complex. This study evaluates disparities in receipt of school services for Hispanic children and its effect on academic performance.

Methods: Secondary analyses of school data on receipt of pre- and post-TBI school services. A logistic regression compared receipt of services between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) children, and a linear regression evaluated services' effect on academic performance.

Results: The study includes 419 children; 46 Hispanic, 373 NHW. For NHW children there were no differences in receipt of pre- and post-TBI services; Hispanic children had significant increase in receipt of services from 5% to 27% (p < .001). Compared to NHWs, Hispanics had lower grade point average (GPA) at baseline (2.3 [confidence interval, CI: 1.9-2.7] vs 2.9 [CI: 2.8-3.0]). No differences in GPA were found between groups after injury among students who received post-TBI services.

Conclusions: Students who receive post-TBI school services benefit academically. NHW students maintain their academic performance and Hispanics increase their performance to their NHW peers' level. This highlights the importance of providing post-TBI school services to ensure better outcomes for all children.

Keywords: Hispanic; disability; injury control and prevention; rehabilitation; school services.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Academic Performance / statistics & numerical data*
  • Adolescent
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / rehabilitation*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Schools / organization & administration*
  • White People*
  • Young Adult