Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and diabetic kidney disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes

PLoS One. 2019 Apr 24;14(4):e0214728. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214728. eCollection 2019.


Objective: The objective was to assess the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Data pertaining to 351 in-patients with type 2 diabetes were collected. Subjects were classified into three groups based on the level of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). UACR < 30 mg/g was defined as normoalbuminuria, while UACR levels of 30-300 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g were defined as microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, respectively. Serum 25OHD and other clinical characteristics among various UACR groups were compared. The relationship between albuminuiria and 25OHD was analyzed.

Results: The prevalence of 25OHD insufficiency in the microalbuminuria group was significantly higher than that in the normoalbuminuria group (25.1% vs. 19.6%; P < 0.05); patients with macroalbuminuria had the highest prevalence of 25OHD deficiency (37.8%; P < 0.01 versus normoalbuminuria). Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that low 25OHD levels were associated with DKD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.97). The association was more robust after adjusting for sex, hypertension, increased systolic blood pressure, glycemic status, and hyperuricemia (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.19-2.20).

Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in patients with albuminuria was overtly higher than that in patients without albuminuria among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was independently associated with DKD in type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Albumins / analysis
  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Asian People
  • China
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / complications
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood


  • Albumins
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Creatinine

Grants and funding

This work was supported by a grant from Bureau of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province, China. (FY201716)