Background: Most studies on adolescent screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) have examined substance use outcomes. However, it may also impact service use and comorbidity-an understudied topic. We address this gap by examining effects of SBIRT on health care use and comorbidities.
Methods: In a randomized trial sample, we assessed 3 SBIRT care modalities: (1) pediatrician-delivered, (2) behavioral clinician-delivered, and (3) usual. Medical comorbidity and health care use were compared between a brief-intervention group with access to SBIRT for behavioral health (combined pediatrician and behavioral clinician arms) and a group without (usual care) over 1 and 3 years.
Results: Among a sample of eligible adolescents (n = 1871), the SBIRT group had fewer psychiatry visits at 1 year (incidence rate ratio [iRR] = 0.76; P = .05) and 3 years (iRR = 0.65; P < .05). Total outpatient visits did not differ in year 1. The SBIRT group was less likely to have mental health diagnoses (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-1.01) or chronic conditions (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.45-0.98) at 1 year compared with those in usual care. At 3 years, the SBIRT group had fewer total outpatient visits (iRR = 0.85; P < .05) and was less likely to have substance use diagnoses (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.45-0.91) and more likely to have substance use treatment visits (iRR = 2.04; P < .01).
Conclusions: Providing SBIRT in pediatric primary care may improve health care use and health, mental health, and substance use outcomes. We recommend further exploring the effects of SBIRT on these outcomes.
Copyright © 2019 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.