2019 American College of Rheumatology/Arthritis Foundation Guideline for the Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated Uveitis

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2019 Jun;71(6):703-716. doi: 10.1002/acr.23871. Epub 2019 Apr 25.


Objective: To develop recommendations for the screening, monitoring, and treatment of uveitis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

Methods: Pediatric rheumatologists, ophthalmologists with expertise in uveitis, patient representatives, and methodologists generated key clinical questions to be addressed by this guideline. This was followed by a systematic literature review and rating of the available evidence according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. A group consensus process was used to compose the final recommendations and grade their strength as conditional or strong.

Results: Due to a lack of literature with good quality of evidence, recommendations were formulated on the basis of available evidence and a consensus expert opinion. Regular ophthalmic screening of children with JIA is recommended because of the risk of uveitis, and the frequency of screening should be based on individual risk factors. Regular ophthalmic monitoring of children with uveitis is recommended, and intervals should be based on ocular examination findings and treatment regimen. Ophthalmic monitoring recommendations were strong primarily because of concerns of vision-threatening complications of uveitis with infrequent monitoring. Topical glucocorticoids should be used as initial treatment to achieve control of inflammation. Methotrexate and the monoclonal antibody tumor necrosis factor inhibitors adalimumab and infliximab are recommended when systemic treatment is needed for the management of uveitis. The timely addition of nonbiologic and biologic drugs is recommended to maintain uveitis control in children who are at continued risk of vision loss.

Conclusion: This guideline provides direction for clinicians and patients/parents making decisions on the screening, monitoring, and management of children with JIA and uveitis, using GRADE methodology and informed by a consensus process with input from rheumatology and ophthalmology experts, current literature, and patient/parent preferences and values.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Arthritis, Juvenile / diagnosis*
  • Arthritis, Juvenile / drug therapy*
  • Arthritis, Juvenile / epidemiology
  • Biological Products / adverse effects
  • Biological Products / therapeutic use*
  • Consensus
  • Glucocorticoids / adverse effects
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Ophthalmology / standards*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Rheumatology / standards*
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Uveitis / diagnosis*
  • Uveitis / drug therapy*
  • Uveitis / epidemiology


  • Biological Products
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors